This book focuses on the grammatical problems that prevent speakers at your level from achieving a native-like command of English grammar. While the book covers most areas of English grammar, it has a heavy concentration on those aspects of grammar that have proven to be the greatest obstacles for intermediate and advanced nonnative speakers.
Nouns defined by previous mention.
Nouns are most commonly defined by previous mention. Use the definite article if you have already introduced the noun in the current context of discussion. For example:
He sent me a check for the items he purchased last week. I deposited the check yesterday.
In the first sentence, the noun check is mentioned for the first time. The use of the indefinite article a signals that the speaker is treating the noun check as new information that the listener is not expected to have any previous knowledge of. However, once the noun check has been introduced, the next use of the same noun is now a defined noun, which must be used with a definite article. That is, from the second mention onward, the speaker expects the listener to know which specific check is being referred to, and thus all future mentions of the noun check in this context must use the. (Notice that we need to constantly qualify the discussion with “in this context.” If the speaker were to shift topics, then the noun check would no longer be a defined noun. Any mention of the noun check in this new context would require an indefinite article the first time it is used.).
PART 1 Noun Phrases.
4 Post-Noun Modifiers.
6 Gerunds and Infinitives.
7 Noun Clauses.
PART 2 Verb Phrases.
8 Basic Verb Forms.
9 Verb Tenses.
10 Simple Verb Complements.
11 Multiple Verb Complements.
PART 3 Sentences.
13 Questions and Negatives.
14 The Passive.
15 Indirect Quotation.
16 Final Review.
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