Many people consider learning grammar a chore. And at times, it can be. But understanding the grammar of any language is essential for becoming a skilled and accurate user of that language. English is certainly no exception.
Standard grammar is composed of the traditional rules for English. It is what grammarians and English professors want everyone to use when they speak and write. But a language evolves over time, and the traditional rules sometimes seem out of step with what is going on in the English-speaking world. The more current or popular usages can be called casual language. That’s what people really say in their everyday lives and is often in direct contradiction with standard grammar. As an illustration, in standard grammar you should use who as the subject of a sentence and use whom when it is used as an object. But that’s not always the case in casual language.
Definite and Indefinite Articles.
The English definite article is the. It is used to identify a particular person or thing. If you are speaking about someone or something you are already familiar with, you use the with the noun. Look at these examples:
I already know the man.
She met the women who won the lottery.
This is the book that I told you about.
The indefinite article is used to describe someone or something that is unfamiliar to you or about which you are speaking in general. There are two forms: a and an. Use a before a word beginning with a consonant. Use an before a word beginning with a vowel. Look at these examples:
He sees a stranger on the corner.
Did you buy an apple or an orange?
Is the woman a good lawyer?
She has an idea.
Unit 1 Nouns.
Unit 2 Definite and Indefinite Articles.
Unit 3 Adjectives.
Unit 4 Personal Pronouns.
Unit 5 Verbs.
Unit 6 Auxiliary Verbs.
Unit 7 Passive Voice.
Unit 8 Subjunctive Mood.
Unit 9 Adverbs.
Review Exercises 1.
Unit 10 Contractions.
Unit 11 Plurals.
Unit 12 Punctuation.
Unit 13 Infinitives and Gerunds.
Unit 14 Relative Pronouns.
Unit 15 Reflexive Pronouns.
Unit 16 Possession.
Unit 17 Possessive Pronouns.
Unit 18 Prepositions.
Unit 19 Capitalization.
Review Exercises 2.
Unit 20 Comparative and Superlative Forms.
Unit 21 Conjunctions.
Unit 22 Interrogatives.
Unit 23 Negation.
Unit 24 Numbers.
Unit 25 Some Important Contrasts.
Review Exercises 3.
Appendix: Common Irregular Verbs.
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