Practice Makes Perfect: Advanced English Grammar for ESL Learners is designed to help advanced-level learners gain control over difficult areas of English grammar. This book is not a systematic treatment of all areas of English grammar. Instead, it deals in depth with selected grammar topics that pose special problems for nonnative speakers. These topics fall into two areas: (1) areas of grammar that are the source of persistent error and (2) areas of grammar that are so complex that even advanced nonnative speakers almost always avoid them.
Distinguishing between its and it’s.
One of the most common errors in written English is confusing the third person singular pronoun its with it’s, the contracted form of it is. The major causes of the confusion is that the apostrophe in it’s is associated with the meaning of possession so that as a result we incorrectly use it’s as the possessive. For example:
X My car lost it’s windshield wiper.
X The dog already got it’s treat.
The simplest and most reliable way to distinguish the contracted form of it is from the uncontracted possessive pronoun its is to see if you can expand its or it’s to it is. If the expanded two-word expression makes sense, then you know that you should use the contracted form it’s. If the expanded two-word expression makes no sense at all, then you know that you are dealing with the possessive pronoun and that you should NOT use the apostrophe.
I Nouns, Pronouns, and Noun Modifiers.
1 Noun plurals.
The spelling and pronunciations of regular nouns.
Irregular plurals of English and Latin origin.
2 Possessive nouns and personal pronouns.
The correct forms of possessive nouns and personal pronouns.
The different meanings of possessive nouns and personal pronouns.
Possessive formed with of.
3 Articles and quantifiers.
Forming the comparative and superlative forms of adjectives.
Deriving adjectives from verb participles.
II Verbs and Verb Tenses.
5 Verb forms and tenses.
Rule #1: The first verb, and only the first verb, is tensed.
Rule #2: All verb constructions except for the simple present and simple past consist of two verb components.
Rule #3: If both the perfect and the progressive aspects are used in the same verb sequence, the perfect always comes first.
6 Talking about present time.
The present and present progressive tenses.
The present perfect tense.
7 Talking about past time.
The past tense.
The past perfect tense.
8 Talking about future time.
Using the present and present progressive tenses for future time.
9 Causative verbs.
Older causative verbs.
More modern causative verbs.
10 The passive.
How the be passive is formed.
Reasons for deleting the agent.
III Clauses and Phrases.
11 The structure of adjective clauses.
The internal structure of adjective clauses.
Creating and moving relative pronouns.
Deleting relative pronouns.
Moving objects of prepositions.
12 Restrictive and nonrestrictive adjective clauses.
The differences in meaning between restrictive and nonrestrictive adjective clauses.
The reduction of adjective clauses to participial phrases.
Determining the expressed and unexpressed subjects of gerunds.
Determining the expressed and unexpressed subjects of infinitives.
15 Noun clauses.
Where noun clauses can be used.
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Теги: учебник по английскому языку :: английский язык :: Lester
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