English grammar, Rules and usage, Bindra A., 2016

English grammar, Rules and usage, Bindra A., 2016.

   This book deals with the construction of English from elementary to advanced level. This book was begun in response to a need in English as second or foreign language course. This book explains what is grammatical and what is not. It teaches how to acquire the grammatical patterns and gives enough practice in the use of acceptable patterns. Native language books cannot serve the purpose for foreign students. Native speakers acquire a language naturally. Foreigners may find certain topics difficult to understand for example, a native speaker need not be explained the difference between can and may, but a foreigner has to be explained this difference. A foreigner can have a problem using a present perfect or a past verb form. The points which the students of English find particularly difficult, e.g. auxiliary verbs, state verbs, modals, the difference between certain similar words, are dealt carefully and in detail. A list of collocations with prepositions is also given so that the students can learn and use them correctly. Many students are uncertain about when to use an apostrophe. It is a very easy to use punctuation mark, yet students have difficulty with it. Care has been taken to explain how to get it right.

English grammar, Rules and usage, Bindra A., 2016


LABELS USED IN GRAMMAR.
It is difficult to talk about English grammar without terms like noun, verb, subject, object, etc. Consider terms like noun and adjective on one hand and subject and object on the other hand. How do we distinguish between them?

Nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc. are categorical labels. They indicate the class or category to which an item belongs.
On the other hand subject, object, etc. are functional labels. They indicate the role or function of an item in a construction.

Categorical labels are formal labels. Read the following sentence:
Ronnie is writing a letter.
To say that ‘Ronnie’ is a noun in the above sentence is to say something about the form of the word.
But to say that ‘Ronnie’ in the above sentence is the subject is to specify the function of the word in the sentence.

Contents.
Preface.
Acknowledgements.
1. The Sentence.
2. Articles.
3. Labels used in Grammar.
4. Noun.
5. Pronoun.
6. Adjective.
7. Adverb.
8. Prepositions.
9. Conjunctions.
10. Apostrophe.
11. Verbs.
12. Modals.
13. Tenses.
14. Verbals: Infinitives, Gerunds and Participles.
15. Phrase Structure.
16. Clauses.
17. Direct and Indirect speech.
18. Active and Passive Voice.
19. Spelling Rules.
Index.



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2023-01-31 08:36:49